19 Jan 2016

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Some Golden Spelling Rules

GOLDEN SPELLING RULES

Some spelling rules are worth learning while others are too complicated or have too many exceptions.

Instead of learning ALL the rules, focus on learning rules which address your particular spelling

problems. Following is some helpful information on the rules for building new words:


1. Words for discussing spelling

2. Ten common spelling rules

1. Words for discussing spelling




  •  VOWELS—a, e, i, o and u are vowels.

  •  CONSONANTS—the other 21 letters of the alphabet.

  •  PREFIX—element added to the front of a word (e.g. un/in=not, pre=before, anti=against)

  •  SUFFIX—element added to the end of a word (e.g. -ing, -able, -ed, -ly, -ful, -ment, -tion)

  •  SYLLABLE—a word or section of a word with a single sound (e.g. read, fa_mous, dif_fi_cult)

  •  STRESS—the emphasis is given to a syllable (see underlined syllables: famous, focus, occur, infer)




2. Ten common spelling rules


 



























































RuleExamplesMemorise
1. ‘ie’ or ‘ei’
i) Write i before e, except after c
ii) Write ie after c for words with a shensound.
iii) Write ei when the vowels sounds like an a as in 'weigh'
i)achieve, believe, friend receive,receipt, perceive
ii)ancient, efficient, sufficient, conscience
iii)neighbour, vein, reign, rein, deign
Exceptions: Words like counterfeit, either, neither, height, leisure, forfeit, foreign, science, species, seize, weird
2. ‘s’ or ‘es’
i) Add es if a word ends in ch, sh, ss, xor z
ii) Add es for most words ending in o
i)arch > arches, clash > clashes, class > classes, box > boxes, quiz > quizzes
ii)tomato > tomatoes, hero > heroes, go > goes, do > does, echo > echoes
Exceptions: Words like altos, duos, pianos, radios, solos sopranos, studios, videos, typos
3. ‘y’ to ‘i’ or not
i) For words ending in y preceded by a vowel, retain the y when adding s or a suffix.
ii) For words ending in y, retain the y when adding ing.
iii) For words ending in y, preceded by a consonant, change the y to i before any other suffix
i) convey > conveys, employ > employer
ii) try > trying, justify > justifying, certify > certifying, study > studying
iii) try > tried, justify > justifies, certify > certifiable, mystify > mystified, laboratory > laboratories
Exceptions: Words like dryness, shyness
4. drop the final ‘e’
i) DROP the e when the suffix starts with a vowel.
ii) DROP the e when the word ends indge.
iii) DROP the final e when adding -ing
i)save > savable, use > usable
ii)judge > judgment
iii)save >saving, manage > managing, trace > tracing, emerge > emerging
Exceptions:DO NOT DROP the e if the word ends in ce or ge (e.g. manage > manageable, trace > traceable)
5. ‘t ’ or ‘tt’ when adding -ing, - ed and some suffixes to verbs
i) DOUBLE the t for verbs of one syllable with a single vowel, or a short vowel sound.
ii) DOUBLE the t for verbs of more than one syllable when the stress is on the last syllable.
i)rot > rotting, rotted, rotten fit > fitting, fittedknot > knotting, knotted
ii)abet > abetting, abetting allot > allotting, allottedcommit > committing, committed emit > emitting, emittedforget > forgetting, forgotten (but forgetful)
Exceptions:DO NOT DOUBLE the t for verbs of one syllable with a double vowel or a long vowel sound (e.g. treat > treating, treated; greet > greeting, greeted)
6. ‘r’ or ‘rr’ when adding -ing, - ed and some suffixes to verbs
i)DOUBLE the r for verbs of one syllable when the final r is preceded by a single vowel.
ii)DOUBLE the r for words of more than one syllable when the stress does not fall on the first syllable.
i)star > starring, starred, starry tar > tarring, tarredwar > warring, warred (but warfare) scar > scarring, scarredstir > stirring, stirred
ii)concur > concurring, concurred, concurrence occur > occurring, occurred, occurrence defer > deferring, deferred, (but deference) deter > deterring, deterring, deterrentinfer > inferring, inferred, (but inference) prefer > preferred, preferring, (but preference) refer > referred, referring, referral
Exceptions:DO NOT DOUBLE the r for verbs of one syllable when the final r is preceded by a double vowel (e.g. fear>fearing, feared)DO NOT DOUBLE the r for words of more than one syllable, when the stress falls on the first syllable (e.g. prosper > prospered, prospering)
7. ‘l’ or ‘ll’ when adding -ing,-ed and some suffixes to verbs DOUBLE the l when it is preceded by a single vowel.cancel > cancelling, cancelled, cancellation enrol > enrolling, enrolled (but enrolment) fulfil > fulfilling, fulfilled, fulfillmentlevel > levelling, levelledtravel > travelling, travelled, travellerExceptions: DO NOT DOUBLE the lwhen it is preceded by a double vowel (e.g. conceal> concealing, concealed)
8. Dropping letters Many words drop a letter when adding a suffix, but it isnot always the final letterargue > argument; proceed > procedure; humour > humorous; disaster > disastrous; repeat > repetition; administer > administrationThere is no reliable rule covering these words, so they simply have to be memorised.
9. Word endings such asable/ible, ant/ance; ent/encenegligible, incredible, invisible, sensible, admirable, preventable, suitable, dependable attendance, ignorance, nuisance, importance sentence, difference ,independence, intelligenceThere is no reliable rule covering these words, so they simply have to be memorised.
10. Silent letters Some words include letters which are not pronounced when the word is spoken.advertisement, campaign, column, debt, design, doubt, gauge, ghetto, heir, knife, knowledge, island, mortgage, often, pneumatic, rhythm, solemn, subtleThere is no reliable rule covering these words, so they simply have to be memorised.

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